Resolution: A document, voted on by committee members, that contains all the issues that the committee wants to solve and the proposed solutions to that issue.
Draft Resolution: A draft of the resolution that has not yet passed through voting procedure.
Working Paper: The Draft Resolution before it is approved by the chairs and introduced to the committee.
Blocs: Groups of countries that form, formally or informally, with the ultimate purpose of writing a working paper together.
Sponsors: The authors of a resolution
Signatories: Other delegates in the committee who do not necessarily agree with the resolution but would like to see it debated.
Pre-ambulatory clauses (Preambs): Clauses that outline why the committee is working on the issue and what has been done in the past. Preams usually include past UN resolutions, treaties, or conventions related to the topic, references to the UN Charter or other international frameworks and laws and general background info formation or facts about the topic, its significance, and its impact. Preams are not as important as operative clauses, and can be very brief; as PEAMUN is a one-day conference, we do not strictly require working papers submitted to chairs to contain preams.
Operative clauses: Clauses that state the solutions that the sponsors of the resolution proposes to resolve the issues.
Amendment: a written statement that adds, deletes or changes an operative clause in a draft resolution. The amendment process is used to strengthen consensus on a resolution by allowing delegates to change the operative clauses (the pre-ambulatory clauses can not be modified). There are two types of amendments:
A friendly amendment is a change to the draft resolution that all sponsors agree with. After the amendment is signed by all of the draft resolution’s sponsors and approved by the committee chair, it will be automatically incorporated into the resolution.
An unfriendly amendment is a change that some or all of the draft resolution’s sponsors do not support and must be voted upon by the committee. This also refers to delegates who did not write this resolution at all but see potential in it as long as several changes are made to it. The sponsors of the amendment will need to obtain a required number of signatories in order to introduce it. Prior to voting on the draft resolution, the committee votes on all unfriendly amendments.
The Process of Drafting a Resolution
Create a bloc with countries holding positions compatible to yours. Pass notes or utilize unmods to discuss solutions.
Convert solutions into operatives. Write preams if time permits.
Format your working paper! Create a header with the committee name and sponsors. Look for signatories from your bloc as well as other blocs.
Submit working paper to chairs, who will (hopefully) approve and type them down. If there are two many working papers submitted, the chairs may give the committee time to merge them together. At this time, delegates can also submit amendments if they so wish.
Introduce the draft resolutions and, if applicable, all amendments to the committees. Chairs may allow time for a Q&A period and/or speeches made for and against the draft resolutions.
It is a good idea to write detailed clauses with sub-clauses answering the questions what, where, when, why, how. For an example of this, look at clause 2 of the resolution below. Notice how it is divided into a, b, c, d,.. and underneath that, i, ii, iii,...
Pre-ambulatory Starters: Affirming, Alarmed By, Convinced, Desiring, Emphasizing, Expecting, Further Deploring, Having Studied, Taking into Consideration, Welcoming.
Operative Starters: Accepts, Approves, Authorizes, Encourages, Endorses, Further Invites, Recommends, Reminds, Supports
Example: This is a resolution written at one of the past PEAMUN conferences.
Sponsors: UAE, Lebanon, Switzerland, Uzbekistan, Uruguay, India
Signatories: Guatemala, Iraq, Bahrain, Zambia, Lesotho, Ireland, Yemen, Afghanistan, UAE, Cyprus, Switzerland, Mauritania, Laos, Monaco, Moldova, Tunisia, Uruguay
1. Encourages member states to combat lethal drone use by establishing an international set of recommended guidelines;
2. Calls upon member states to register any drones with a UN Drone Registry under one of the following;
Information about drones in the UN Drone Registry will be publically accessible to any state
The UN reserves the right to track the location of any unauthorized device
3. Emphasizes state sovereignty in regards to international border surveillance;
Permissions from all bordering nations involved in international surveillance is required before sending surveillance drones into a region
All involved nations have veto power regarding border surveillance, and can decide whether or not they want drones in the region
4. Emphasizes transparency of civilian casualties resulting from drone strikes, particularly unintended impacts;
5. Urges all nations employing any type of drone to respect international law of requiring court trials for persons of interest prior to drone strikes;
6. Emphasizes the importance of creating International Government Recommendations for drone usage;
Nations must have another country’s approval to fly drones in their airspace as to not infringe another country’s national sovereignty
7. Calls upon member states to create International Civilian Guidelines;
No armed drones should be possessed by civilians
Citizens should have to obtain a license in order to own drones
Besides the mentioned rules, countries should set their own guidelines regarding civilian drones
8. Recognizes that international spying and drone strikes violates a nation’s sovereignty.
Author: Nahla Owens
Published: October 10, 2018